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The National Biodefense Strategy (NBS​ or the Strategy) was released on September 18, 2018 and guides th​e U.S. government’s efforts to reduce the risk of, prepare for, respond to, and recover from biological incidents, whether naturally occurring, deliberate, or accidental in origin. National Security Presidential Memorandum-14 (NSPM-14) directs implementation of the Strategy, including the development of this Biodefense Public Report. This report does not primarily address activities related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because the data collection period concluded well before the HHS Secretary’s declaration of a public health emergency regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the content of this report is diverse and highlights some of the efforts across the U.S. government to address all biological threats.

​Dev​elopment of this report followed the timeline laid out in NSPM-14. Work began among federal departments and agencies to collect biodefense data in late 2018, the first year to capture biodefense programs and activities across the federal government, and continued through the first half of 2019. This report describes a sampling of specific achievements and programs undertaken by federal agencies that reduce the risk of biological threats to the American people.

In addition to the specific programs captured here, many other activities continue to be implemented across the federal government to protect the United States from a wide range of biological threats. Some of the efforts that have been described within this report, and many activities that have not been reported here, support the ongoing COVID-19 response. Future public reports will address federal biodefense activities related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

​Continued implementation of the NBS will better prepare the nation to protect public health, agriculture, critical infrastructure, and the environment against biological threats.

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