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Module 1: COVID-19 Outpatient Therapeutics Overview

Who Is At Risk for Severe COVID-19?

COVID-19 Risk Continuum

COVID-19 Risk Continuum chart

Sociodemographic factors and non-pharmaceutical interventions affect exposure
Original illustration by Dr. William Werbel, adapted for the COVID-19 Real-Time Learning Network

For more information, refer to: CDC Underlying Medical Conditions Associated with Higher Risk for Severe COVID-19: Information for Healthcare Professionals

Summary of COVID-19 Preventative Agents & Treatments

Summary of COVID-19 Preventative Agents & Treatments chart

# Be sure to check latest updates on inpatient care

1 Convalescent Plasma EUA High titer convalescent plasma is authorized for specific immunocompromised patients.
2 Refer to individual product Fact Sheets for authorization details

NIH Guidelines For Treatment of Mild to Moderate COVID-19 in Non-hospitalized Adults Who Are at High Risk of Progressing to Severe COVID-19

The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (the Panel) recommends the following anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies as preferred treatments for COVID-19.

  • These drugs are listed in order of preference:
    • Nirmatrelvir co-packaged with ritonavir (Paxlovid) (AIIa)
    • Remdesivir (Veklury) (BIIa)
  • Alternative therapy. For use when the preferred therapies are not available, feasible to use, or clinically appropriate.
    • Molnupiravir (Lagevrio) (CIIa)

To learn more, refer to NIH COVID Treatment Guidelines: Antiviral Agents, Including Antibody Products

NIH: Patient Prioritization for Treatment

  • The NIH Prioritization Guidelines are for use only when logistical constraints limit the availability of therapies.
  • Remdesivir is a recommended option if nirmatrelvir co-packaged with ritonavir cannot be used.
  • Some treating facilities may not have the ability to provide a 3-day course of remdesivir intravenous infusions to all eligible patients. In these situations, prioritizing patients who will benefit the most from the therapy becomes necessary.
  • Prioritization strategy includes 4 factors: age, vaccination status, immune status, and clinical risk factors.
Tier Risk Group

Immunocompromised individuals not expected to mount an adequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their underlying conditions, regardless of vaccine status (see Immunocompromising Conditions below); or

Unvaccinated individuals at the highest risk of severe disease (anyone aged ≥75 years or anyone aged ≥65 years with additional risk factors).


Unvaccinated individuals not included in Tier 1 who are at risk of severe disease (anyone aged ≥65 years or anyone aged <65 years with clinical risk factors)


Vaccinated individuals at risk of severe disease (anyone aged ≥65 years or anyone aged <65 years with clinical risk factors)

Note: Vaccinated individuals who are not up to date with their immunizations are likely at higher risk for severe disease; patients within this tier who are in this situation should be prioritized for treatment.

Recommendations for Special Populations: Immunocompromised & Pediatrics

CIG Right-Nav