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National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) 2023-2026

Closeup male doctor or physician reading text book and writing information,work on laptop computer with medical stethoscope on t  

  1. HHS. “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Hospital and Outpatient Clinician Workforce.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Issue Brief, May 3, 2022.
  2. Grimm, Christi A. “Hospitals Reported That the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Significantly Strained Health Care Delivery Results of a National Pulse Survey.”  Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General. March 2021.
  3. Toney, Denise, et al. “Creating a blueprint for the future: lessons learned from public health laboratories in the COVID-19 response.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 27.1 (2021): S101-S105. 
  4. Burwell, Sylvia Mathews. “Improving pandemic preparedness: lessons from covid-19.” Council on Foreign Relations., 2020.
  5. ASPR. “National Strategy for a Resilient Public Health Supply Chain” July 2021. 
  6. Office of the Surgeon General. “Confronting Health Misinformation: The US Surgeon General’s Advisory on Building a Healthy Information Environment.” 2021.
  7. Roozenbeek, Jon, et al. “Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world.” Royal Society open science 7.10 (2020): 201199.
  8. Chang, Arthur, et al. “Cleaning and disinfectant chemical exposures and temporal associations with COVID-19—national poison data system, United States, January 1, 2020–March 31, 2020.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69.16 (2020): 496. 
  9. Kim, Do Kyun David, and Gary L. Kreps. “An analysis of government communication in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations for effective government health risk communication.” World Medical & Health Policy 12.4 (2020): 398-412. 
  10. ASPR. “Community Resilience.” Last Reviewed September 8, 2020. 
  11. ASPR. “National Health Security Strategy Evaluation of Progress, 2015-2018.” 
  12. Trust for America’s Health. “The Impact of Chronic Underfunding on America’s Public Health System: Trends, Risks, and Recommendations, 2022.” 
  13. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. “Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.” February 2022.
  14. CDC. “Zoonotic Diseases.” Last Reviewed July 1, 2021. l
  15. National Intelligence Council. “Global Trends 2040: A More Contested World.” March 2021. 
  16. Wu, Xiaoxu, et al. “Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.” Environment international 86 (2016): 14-23. 
  17. Rohr, J.R., Barrett, C.B., Civitello, D.J. et al. “Emerging human infectious diseases and the links to global food production.” Nature Sustainability 2 (2019): 445–456. 
  18. CDC. “Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States.” 2019. 
  19. CDC. “COVID-19: U.S. Impact on Antimicrobial Resistance, Special Report 2022.” Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2022.
  20. Nelson, Richard E., et al. “National estimates of health care costs associated with multidrug-resistant bacterial infections among hospitalized patients in the United States.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 72. Supplement_1 (2021): S17-S26. .
  21. CDC. “AMD: Combating Health care-associated Infections and Antibiotic-resistant Microbes.” Last Reviewed October 15, 2019.
  22. CDC. “Action in Health Care to Fight Anti​microbial Resistance.” Last Reviewed November 10, 2021. 
  23. Weiner-Lastinger, Lindsey M et al. “The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on health care-associated infections in 2020: A summary of data reported to the National Health care Safety Network.” Infection control and hospital epidemiology vol. 43,1 (2022): 12-25. 
  24. National Interagency Coordination Center. “Wildland Fire Summary and Statistics Annual Report 2020.” 2020. 
  25. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Record-breaking Atlantic hurricane season draws to an end.” June 10, 2021. 
  26. National Weather Service. “February 2021 Historical Winter Storm Event South-Central Texas.” 2021. 
  27. Di Liberto Tom. “Astounding heat obliterates all-time records across the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada in June 2021.” June 30, 2021. 
  28. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. “Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.” Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2020. 
  29. Balbus, John, et al. “The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC. 2016. 
  30. CDC. “Climate Effects on Health.” Last Reviewed April 25, 2022. 
  31. Department of Homeland Security. “Homeland Threat Assessment.” October 2020. 
  32. United States Government Accountability Office. “National Biodefense Strategy: Additional Efforts Would Enhance Likelihood of Effective Implementation.” February 2020. 
  33. Coelho AC, García Díez J. “Biological Risks and Laboratory-Acquired Infections: A Reality That Cannot be Ignored in Health Biotechnology.” Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2015 Apr 28;3:56. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2015.00056. PMID: 25973418; PMCID: PMC4412124.
  34. Bergal, Jenni. “Florida Hack Exposes Danger to Water Systems.” Pew Charitable Trusts. June 10, 2020. 
  35. ForgeRock. “2021 ForgeRock Consumer Identity Breach Report.” 2021. 
  36. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency. “Measuring the COVID-19 Pandemic’s Effect on the National Critical Function Provide Medical Care.” July 2021. 
  37. ASPR. “Healthcare System Cybersecurity: Readiness and Response Considerations.” February 2021. 
  38. Chandra, Anita, et al. “Toward an Initial Conceptual Framework to Assess Community Allostatic Load: Early Themes from Literature Review and Community Analyses on the Role of Cumulative Community Stress.” Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2018. 
  39. The Public Health Service Act, 42 § U.S.C. 300hh-1
  40. CDC. “Climate Effects on Health.” Last Reviewed April 25, 2022. 

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